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miércoles, 29 de febrero de 2012

Why emigrate from "Bonny Scotland"?

Living in Scotland in the 19th Century
Typical croft of the period
Hard to believe
The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were times of brutal poverty and repression for the common people of Scotland. Under the traditional clan system, destroyed by the English after the Battle of Culloden in 1746, Scottish aristocrats rented land to tenants (known as crofters) under a semi-feudal system the mainstay of which was the raising of black cattle and kelp collecting. When these industries became unprofitable, the landowners turned to sheep. Sheep required less labour, and first the highlands, then the rest of Scotland were brutally cleared of crofters to make way for the new system which was based on the enclosure of vast tracts of arable land.

 The method was violent, and the common people treated worse than the animals that were to replace them. Eviction of crofters was achieved by simply burning villages to the ground. A contemporary account by Donald McLeod, a crofter from Sutherland, makes harrowing reading:
" The consternation and confusion were extreme. Little or no time was given for the removal of persons or property; the people striving to remove the sick and the helpless before the fire should reach them; next, struggling to save the most valuable of their effects. The cries of the women and children, the roaring of the affrighted cattle, hunted at the same time by the yelling dogs of the shepherds amid the smoke and fire, altogether presented a scene that completely baffles description — it required to be seen to be believed.
A dense cloud of smoke enveloped the whole country by day, and even extended far out to sea. At night an awfully grand but terrific scene presented itself — all the houses in an extensive district in flames at once. I myself ascended a height about eleven o'clock in the evening, and counted two hundred and fifty blazing houses, many of the owners of which I personally knew, but whose present condition — whether in or out of the flames — I could not tell. The conflagration lasted six days, till the whole of the dwellings were reduced to ashes or smoking ruins."

The only alternative
Enclosure of the Highlands destroyed the clan system even more surely than English repression. If the English disarmed the crofters, prohibited the wearing of tartans and kilts and ruled the country with an iron fist through the infamous Black Watch regiments, enclosure cut the last bonds of cultural and emotional allegiance of the people to the Laird. Those who survived the enclosures were driven to the new industrial towns in the Lowlands or to try their luck in America or Australasia.

The Potato Famine
The Highland Potato Famine was a famine caused by potato blight that struck the Scottish Highlands in the 1840s. While the mortality rate was less than other Scottish famines in the 1690s, and 1780, the Highland potato famine caused over 1.7 million people to leave Scotland during the period 1846–52.

Famine was a real prospect throughout the period, and certainly it was one of  severe malnutrition, serious disease, crippling financial hardship and traumatic disruption to essentially agrarian community. The effect on the Lowlands was equally devastating with an influx of impoverished Irish and Highland Scots which increased competion for jobs, housing and food. The effects of overpopulation lasted for the rest of the century, and emigration was the only relief valve.
Wherever poor Scots gathered during these years emigration would inevitable be discussed, plans laid and information on assisted emigration schemes such as those set up by the Otago Association passed on by word of mouth. A "respectable" Scot could emigrate to Nova Scotia for as little as one pound, and little more to Australasia. The effects on the Scottish countryside are still evident today. The Highlands are sparsly populated with weak cultural identity (Gaelic was the common language of crofters in the 19th century but today only 1.2% of the entire population of the country has "some Gaelic ability", mainly in the Outer Hebrides) and many more sheep than people.

The effects can still be seen today

martes, 28 de febrero de 2012

Andrew Williamson 1.0

        The deep-set eyes look out from under a thatch of dark auburn hair. The face is thin with a short ginger beard, high forehead and straight, regular features, the hands large, the tallish frame sparse of flesh but strong and straight. It is November 1857 and he takes a last look at the group of landowners gathered in the shelter on the Kirk before turning away. The filthy mire of the common has soaked his ill-shod feet and the autumn drizzle runs off the nondescript tam o' shanter and down the back of his neck. The Crawfordjohn hiring fair is drawing to a close, and Andrew has not got his shilling. He rests, with hands crossed on the bow of a shepherd's crook worn to a smooth silvery grey by his father's hands, staring at the bleak wall of the church. His expressionless face betrays nothing of the conflicting emotions welling up inside: desire, frustration and embarrassment, disappointment, resentment and fear. Especially fear, the fear inherited from the famine he had barely survived as a boy.  Not even his natural defiance can banish the images etched on his brain since childhood: the hopeless appeal in the eyes of classmates dying of starvation; the train of skeletal Highlanders in bare feet, naked except for a threadbare blanket or cloak, with their big-headed hood-eyed children with swollen bellies passing daily through the village on their way to Glasgow in a phantasmal procession of walking dead; Tom falling sick from eating boiled grass; the shrunken face of his dead mother. But there is no outward sign of turmoil as he stares at the Kirk, his eyes as still as the mist-shrouded line of birches on the ridge behind the village.

"You'd be John Williamson's boy Andrew, wouldn't ye?"
Andrew lowered his eyes to take in the squat figure of Douglas Macgregor, farmer.
"Ye've got my deepest sympathy young Andrew, your father was a good hard-working man".
"Aye, that he was".
"How old are ye now, lad?"
"Two and twenty come January".
"Aye, time flies". Macgregor looked down, avoiding the level gaze of the younger man. "Still, I won't be needing another shepherd this year.  Good luck t'ye!"

The landowner stomped off through the mire. Andrew looked around. The fair was over, at least the hiring part. Now the dancing and drinking was beginning in front of the tavern across the way. He followed the movements of a yellow bonnet amongst the throng of other dancers, seemingly lost in thought. His reverie was interrupted by a tinker, a small nuggety man of about forty who was rolling a shiny new shilling around the fingers of his right hand.
"I got me shillin'," he offered, "I seen you dinna get a place lad. Can I invite ye to a dram?" Andrew shook his head. "I tell ye what lad", continued the tinker, "ye canna stare at the gentry. They'll not hire ye. Ye gotta be 'umble or ye're goin' to starve".
"Go to the devil man! Who asked your opinion?" Andrew spat out. "I've got better things to do than get drunk with a stinking tinker".
"Aye, I seen you lookin' at 'er", said the tinker. "Fat chance!"

He had arrived when the hiring fair was in full swing, taking his place amongst the
shepherds each holding a crook or a tuft of wool as a sign of their trade. Next to him, a group of cowmen with pails and dairymaids with milking stools chatted and laughed together, and further off housemaids held brooms or mops. There was a festive atmosphere, a great deal of flirting and joking and some red faces that betrayed early visits to the inn. The smell of sweat and steaming clothes assaulted his nostrils and his ears rang with the noise of shouting voices, laughter, and the screams of excited girls whose petticoats were menaced by the scissors of a jovial tailor. Standing on tiptoe Andrew tried to look over the heads of the crowd to find his brother Robbie who, because he was only seventeen years old and without a trade, could only aspire to a place as a general farm hand. Instead, he caught sight of the yellow  bonnet, and under the bonnet a pair of black eyes unflinchingly met his. A derisive smile played around the red mouth of Kathleen Morrison as she stood only a few yards away wagging her big wooden cooks' spoon at him across the sea of bobbing heads. Andrew's stomach contracted and the blood rushed to his head in a wave of desire that left him stunned. He could only return a weak smile, and knew as he did so that it made him look silly and inept. He dropped back on his heels but it was too late: in a second there she was, confronting him with a taunting grin.
"Oh, young Andrew Williamson, are you going to dance with me later?"
"Err... I can't come to the dance. My brother..."
"Oh yes, poor Tom. Isn't he any better? What a pity, you are so good looking Andrew Williamson; I'm just dying to show off with you. Do come!"
Andrew felt the flush rise to his face. The desire to take her wet shoulders in his hands overcame him and he raised them, crook and all, unable to speak. "Oh, he's blushing, poor boy. Don't worry, your reverend William Goldie isn't here. He's gone over to Leadhills".
At the mention of the minister's name Andrew's arms fell back to his sides and the crook rattled to the ground. As he bent to pick it up his face brushed her gown and he smelt the musky reek of her and when he stood up it was on trembling legs. "Never mind", she said. "If you can't you can't. There's plenty more who will. But if you change your mind you know where to find me".

Andrew pushed open the door and stooped to enter the cottage, pausing and rubbing his eyes to accustom them to the smoke. It was late afternoon and the cottage, with its one small window, was in darkness except for the dull glow of the coal fire. He hung his cloak on a peg behind the door and peered through the smoky air. Thomas, his eldest brother, was huddled as usual in the corner next to the hearth that sent puffs of acrid smoke into the room every time the door was opened, his white face with its stark orange freckles staring with mute reproach at the newcomer. Nobody else was home.
"Where's Robbie?" asked Andrew. "Did he get a place?"
The cottage had two rooms: the 'but-end' with its open hearth was kitchen, dining room and living room, and the 'ben-end' with its three box-beds the sleeping room.
"Hasn't been back home", said Thomas. "What about you?"
"No luck. Macgregor said he don't need shepherds this year. I reckon he's got some Paddy on the cheap. Nobody else even put me the question. How are you Tom?"
"I'm alright, don't you worry about me, I don't need nothing".
So Robert, the charming, carefree Robbie, was their only hope of surviving the winter. Andrew knew they could expect little help from the married brothers James and George who now had their own children to feed. And John and David, the other two single men still living at home, barely earned enough to keep the five of them in oats and coals. John had finished his apprenticeship and was working as a draper's assistant in Abington, three miles away, and David, who loved horses, was a stable hand at the inn, but even their combined incomes would not be enough. Andrew knew that Tom would not survive the winter if he couldn't get meat, eggs or milk to vary the constant diet of porridge and boiled potatoes.
It was dark when John and David arrived, together as usual. They already knew that Andrew hadn't got a place, having passed though the common on the way home. And they had news about Robbie: he had got his shilling as a general farm hand.

Tom did not survive the winter, dying in March. After the funeral the four brothers returned to the cottage and sat around the smouldering fire. David, Andrew and Robbie waited for John to speak first. Not only was this deference his right now that he was the eldest unmarried brother, but his pragmatic intelligence, steady character and ambition endowed him with natural leadership. "I've been corresponding with a drapery in England, in Wiltshire. It's a good place they've offered me and I am going to take it. There's more and better work in England than here, a man can make a living. Robbie, you'll come with me. You others can decide for yourselves".
"I'm not going to England", said Andrew. "I'd rather emigrate and live with savages than with the English".
"Oh, Andy, take me with you!" burst out Robert. "Why don't we go to America and find a fortune in gold?"
"How can you emigrate if you haven't got a penny to your name?" said David. "Besides, you've taken the shilling and probably spent it too. You've got to stay here until next Michaelmas. As for me, I'm going with John. There's work with horses in England. I'm not going to risk drowning or getting eaten by cannibals. England for me. Who cares if you hate them?" he turned to Andrew, "don't you hate the gentry here?"
"Aye, but at least I know them. I'll be going over to Greenock next week. There's assisted emigration, I've seen the notices. You can go to Australia for four pounds." He was silent a moment. "I know I haven't got four pounds, but we have to sell the cottage. A hundred and twenty pounds I reckon we could get, that makes twenty pounds each counting Jamie and Georgie and us four.  You two are going to England, you need money to make a start. Robbie can go too after Michaelmas, it's only seven months 'till he gets his wages. He can stay with James or George even if he has to sleep in the but-end. That only leaves me and I'm not staying here. Lot's of men are emigrating... and women too".

He stopped, suddenly aware of the bare silence that greeted his words. He looked around: three pairs of eyes stared mutely back. The freehold on the cottage went back to their great-grandfather George, the first Williamson to arrive in Crawfordjohn from Lanark more than  100 years ago, in the days when the village was a busy and prosperous  junction with stables, inns, schools and its own market. Now, a decade after the potato famine, it had become a stagnant backwater. New roads had left it stranded far from the main thoroughfares. But for all that the cottage was still the family. If they didn't live there they would no longer be the Williamsons of Crawfordjohn. Each brother stared into this new chasm, and the sepulchural silence was broken only by the moan of the wind in the eaves.
Andrew stood up. "I'll never get on here", he murmured. "I need to know. Tomorrow".

lunes, 27 de febrero de 2012

The Bare Facts

Andrew Williamson in later life.
(Thanks to Laurie Ann Rands)
Andrew Williamson was born on 15 January 1836 in Crawfordjohn, Scotland, to John Williamson and Helen, nee Welsh. He was the 6th of 7 children. His father died in 1857, and during the next few years the family broke up. Thomas, the eldest brother, died in 1859. John and Robert moved south and settled in Swindon, England. Only Mary stayed in Crawfordjohn where she married a Lanarkshire man. No more is known of Andrew until on 1 October 1866, now 30 years old, he turns up at the Registry Office in Alexandra in Central Otago, New Zealand, to marry Ellen Balling (b. Jersey, England, 1835). Seven months later, on 1 March 1867 , a  stillborn child was delivered. Another child would be born on 23 July 1868. Three days later both the mother and the second child were also dead.

Andrew then married Ellen Whelan (born in  Limerick , Ireland in 1841) at the Dunstan Registry Office on 13 February 1869, just 7 months after losing his first family.  The first of 8 children, John, was born in Outram on 14 October the same year. Seven more would follow at regular intervals Ellen, born in Dunstan in 1871, Robert in Clyde in 1873,  then Mary in 1876, Jane in 1878, Ada in 1881, Andrew in 1883 and Alice in 1887 were all born in the Nevis Valley. Andrew died there in 1912 at the age of 76, and is buried in an unmarked grave.

In 1871, the date of this clipping from the Otago Times, he was still prospecting around the Dunstan area:

Messrs. Williamson and Co. have abandoned their claim on the West bank of the Molyneux (between Clyde and Alexandra), and are now prospecting at the foot of the Dunstan Range. They have struck payable gold nearly everywhere, and if water were obtainable, they state they have found ground that would afford remunerative employment for a large number of miners for many years to come.

But water with a good head to drive a sluicing nozzle is rare in those parts. Apparently the Dunstan prospect didn’t work out and they either had to turn back towards Clyde or carry on over the Carrick Range to the Nevis. Robert was the last of his children born outside the valley. By 1876, when Mary was born, Andrew must have been working a claim in the Nevis Valey and had brought his family to join him.

This, from the Otago Witness dated 21 August 1901 is about the death of Ellen Whelan, my great grandmother. It corroborates the indirect evidence provided by the birth registry that the family established residence at Nevis soon after Robert was born:
The third death, came as a shock to almost everyone. It was that of Mrs Andrew Williamson, who, with her husband and small family, came to the Nevis in the early seventies from Clyde, where they had been residing for some years. Mrs Williamson had been ailing for some time past, suffering from chronic bronchitis, but no one imagined that her end was so near. She passed peacefully away from her sorrowing friends at 8 o'clock on Saturday evening, 3rd inst.

Hiring Fair

Prospective workers would gather in the street or market place, often sporting some sort of badge or tool to denote their speciality: shepherds held a crook or a tuft of wool, cowmen brought wisps of straw, dairymaids carried a milking stool or pail and housemaids held brooms or mops, this is why some hiring fairs were known as mop fairs. Employers would look them over and, if they were thought fit, hire them for the coming year, handing over a shilling to seal the arrangement.[4] Both male and female agricultural servants would gather in order to bargain with prospective employers and, hopefully, secure a position for the coming year. The yearly hiring included board and lodging for single employees for the whole year with wages being paid at the end of the year's service. These fairs attracted all the other trappings of a fair, and they turned into major feasts in their own right, and attracted poor reputations for the drunkenness and immorality involved.[5] Annual hiring fairs were held, during Martinmas week at the end of November, in the market towns of the East Riding of Yorkshire in places like Beverley, Bridlington, Driffield, Hedon, Hornsea, Howden, Hull, Malton, Patrington, Pocklington, and York.[6] Hiring fairs continued well into the 20th century, up to the Second World War in some places but their function as employment exchanges was diminished by the Corn Production Act 1917. This legislation guaranteed minimum prices for wheat and oats, specified a minimum wage for agricultural workers and established the Agricultural Wages Board, to ensure stability for farmers and a share of this stability for agricultural workers. (Wikipedia)

Hiring Fairs in Lowland Scotland [i]
One of the economic and workplace traditions associated with certain fairs disappeared altogether in the early twentieth century. Martinmas Fair in November, for instance, was primarily a "hiring fair" where men and women, boys and girls, were engaged as servants for the coming half year. Some customs associated with the hiring fairs and servants are particularly interesting:
Friday last was the "Dudsday" (or Martinmas) fair in Kilmarnock (Ayrshire) that is, the fair at which the country servants spend their former half year's wages in new clothes.
  In turn-of-the-century Lesmahagow:
The villagers efter their day's wurk wis done, would arrive to enjoy the "fun o' the fair". The fairs were held in March and October. That was when the fermers would walk aboot, talking to the men and women they were considering employing as farm hands, ploughmen and maids, arranging to fee them for the next six months and a shilling piece would be handed over to seal the commitment of employment.
There are many descriptions of hiring fairs in the literature of the 19th century:
"...so we came to Lullingford and found the Hiring Fair just beginning.
The long row of young folks, and some not so young, who were there to be hired, began near our stall. Each one carried the sign of his trade or hers. A cook had a big wooden spoon, and if the young fellows were too gallus she'd smack them over the head with the flat of it. Men that went with teams had whips, hedgers a brummock, gardeners a spade. Cowmen carried a bright tin pail, thatchers a bundle of straw. A blacksmith wore a horseshoe in his hat, and there were a tuthree of them, for a few big farms would club together and hire a blacksmith by the year. Shepherds had a crook and bailiffs a lanthorn, to show how late they'd be out and about after robbers...
There were tailors and weavers, wool carders and cobblers, too, for the farmers clubbed together for them also. The carders had a hank of coloured wool, and tailors made a great game running up and down the line of young women and threatening to cut their petticoats short.
Jancis laughed with the rest, but I could see she'd been crying. She looked a real picture in her print gown and bonnet, with the dairymaid's milking stool. They were a tidy set of young women, the housemaids with broom on shoulder, the laundrymaids with dollies..."
--Precious Bane by Mary Webb, Book Three, Chapter One, The Hiring Fair
And in Thomas Hardy's The Mayor of Casterbridge:

"The fair without the windows was now raging thick and loud. It was the chief hiring fair of the year, and differed quite from the market of a few days earlier. In substance it was a whitey-brown crowd flecked with white — this being the body of labourers waiting for places. The long bonnets of the women, like waggon-tilts, their cotton gowns and checked shawls, mixed with the carters' smockfrocks; for they, too, entered into the hiring. Among the rest, at the corner of the pavement, stood an old shepherd, who attracted the eyes of Lucetta and Farfrae by his stillness.
He was evidently a chastened man. The battle of life had been a sharp one with him, for, to begin with, he was a man of small frame. He was now so bowed by hard work and years that, approaching from behind, a person could hardly see his head."